The Importance of Cytokine Detection and Analysis

Just as communication is important in keeping humans connected, the same applies to cells. When it comes to communication with cells in the body, cytokine plays an important role. While they are important in communication with cells in other systems, they are also beneficial in a different diagnosis. Additionally, they can be used for treating a wide range of disorders. An autoimmune condition, cancer, hectic shock, and other related disorders are a few that cytokine has implications. Generally, the cytokine is very useful in clinical activities and applications.

What is cytokine?

They are regarded as soluble proteins, peptides, and broad glycoproteins, acting a the immune system’s chemical messenger. As important intercellular communicators, these small proteins help in conveying messages from cell to cell. Additionally, they are responsible for contributing to the growth of cells and immune response. Cytokines are actors in paracrine fashion, autocrine, and endocrine fashion. 

Cytokines consist of chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines. However, they are restricted from crossing the lipid layer cell’s wall from entering the cytoplasm. These cytokines have been shown to play a major part in endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine signaling as agents of immunomodulation. 

Cytokines have been found to help regulate vital human body functions, which is why researchers understand there is more need to channel more energy to understand it better. Furthermore, both clinicians and researchers have seen a need to know more about their messaging capability and the traveling of signals through the body. They also see there is a better need to understand their roles in fighting different diseases. 

What is the importance of cytokine detection and analysis?

Different challenges are associated with cytokine testing. However, researchers have found it as one of the most suitable options for research work. This is because of its non-invasive nature and very low cost. While cytokines have different benefits, the most important area of analysis is their role in battling chronic inflammation. This condition is a contributor to various diseases and ailments. A few importance of cytokine detection and analysis include 

  • They are cost-effective
  • They are suitable for a wide range of research work 
  • They are used in battling a wide range of diseases 
  • They help in diagnosing a wide range of illnesses such as cancer and other related diseases
  • They are great communicators for cells 
  • They help regulate the body 
  • They offer great potential for diagnosing and imaging patients with chronic inflammatory disease
  • Stimulation of hematopoiesis cells 
  • Antibody production after binding to the receptor in activated B-cell 

Cytokine Platforms and Analysis

There are a host of methods for determining cytokines, but at the moment, immunoassays remain the most popular. Sample analysis of cytokines can be carried out using different methods, and all the methods are not better than each other. Having an idea of the various platforms can ve helpful in picking the one that will work best for the area of application in any situation. 

The Meso Scale Discovery platform

Commonly abbreviated as (MSD-ECL), this method is similar to the conventional ELISA method in certain areas. What differentiates these two methods is that the MSD-ECL platform uses non-radioactive electrochemiluminescent labels that are conjugated to detect antibodies. Using these immunoassays gives researchers and clinicians an ultrasensitive detection that yields a higher sensitivity and a wider range of dynamics, all at lower sample volumes. When it comes to the identification and analysis of trends in various profiles of cytokine with better precision, using the MSD platform is suitable for such research work. 

ELISA assay

This method remains the most predominantly used immunoassay form. The primary antibody in this immunoassay helps capture, while the secondary antibody is for the conjugation to an enzyme or radioisotopes for detection. Most of the ELISA kits come with a single cytokine. However, the newly introduced multiplexed system has come up with an option to put this limitation behind by simultaneously detecting various multiple expressions of cytokine in a single assay. 

ELISpot

Monitoring the immunity of humans has become easier with the ELISpot. Additionally, researchers and clinicians have found it useful in other areas. Thanks to the quantitative and qualitative assay of cytokine ELISpot. Researchers and clinicians now easily detect the response of certain cellular immune antigens, including monitoring them using this method. Furthermore, they help access cytokine antigen-specific cells and the secretion of cytokine from activated innate immune cells. This method depends on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent technique. They help measure the response of different types of cells to a stimulus. 

Flow Cytometry

Popularly known as FACS analysis, this is a reliable method for proving the accuracy and effectiveness of identifying and measuring cellular biomarkers in complex subpopulations. The FACS analysis is used for detecting cytokine and the most interesting part is that the detection can be completed within 120 minutes using the right cytokine assay kit. Bodily fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid or synovial can be used to analyze cytokines using this platform, including blood. 

Conclusion

When it comes to the growth of angiogenesis, modulation, inflammation, and other hosts of disorders, cytokines play a very important role. Apart from their roles in detecting other disorders, they have many applications in research works. With an accurate measurement of relevant cytokines, they can help diagnose certain kinds of cancer as well. However, various tests and instrumental analyses are available to analyze cytokine, with each of them having its different merits and demerits.

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