The surgical removal of the ovaries is known as oophorectomy. This type of surgery is recommended by healthcare providers for many pathologies. Before the surgery, your doctor or Gynecologist in Islamabad will discuss the merits and the risks of the procedure with you, so you can make a clear decision. Read on to know more about oophorectomy:
Why is oophorectomy done?
In the female body, there are two ovaries, sitting on each side of the uterus. The ovaries are responsible for the regulation and production of female sex hormones—estrogen and progesterone, as well as, release of the female egg every month, known as ovulation. An oophorectomy is performed either for the removal of one ovary—unilateral oophorectomy, or both—bilateral oophorectomy. Oophorectomy may also be performed as part of the hysterectomy procedure.
Oophorectomy treats a number of ovarian pathologies, while preventing certain conditions as well:
Benign tumors of the ovaries may require surgical excision. These tumors are non-cancerous and do not risk spread to other organs. However, oophorectomy is preferred to prevent reoccurrence.
Chronic pelvic pain:
Patients often experience chronic pelvic pain after an ovary-sparing hysterectomy or due to other chronic conditions. To relieve the patient of this chronic pain, the healthcare provider may recommend oophorectomy.
Ovarian cysts are quite common. These are a type of noncancerous growth that occur in response to sex hormones. They are quite common in young girls and may need oophorectomy for permanent cure.
This gene mutation increases the risk of ovarian and breast cancer. Anyone who tests positive for this mutation may choose prophylactic oophorectomy as part cancer prevention.
Presence of uterine endometrium at ectopic sites is called endometriosis. Ovaries are a common site for endometriosis to occur and causes increased menstrual bleeding and pain. For women who find no cure from medicinal treatments, oophorectomy is recommended.
Ectopic pregnancy is the fertilization and embedding of the embryo at sites other than normal—particularly the fallopian tubes. Growth of the fetus in the narrow site can cause rupture of the fallopian tubes and intra-abdominal bleeding. This often requires surgery during which oophorectomy is also done.
Ovaries are hanging by the side of the uterus through certain ligaments. When the ovaries twist on its ligament stalk, it causes serious pain as the blood vessels are compressed and the blood flow is compromised. As part of the treatment of ovarian torsion, oophorectomy is performed.
There are many types of ovarian cancers, that may start around the outer layer of the ovary, the eggs or the connective tissue. Ovarian cancers are common in both young and elderly women, and present with symptoms like postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, pain in the abdomen and abnormal menstruation. To treat the cancer and prevent its spread, oophorectomy is performed; in case of spread to the uterus, hysterectomy is performed as well.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID):
These are ascending infections of the female reproductive tract that start from the external genitalia and may reach the ovaries. Chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases cause infections of the fallopian tubes, with extensive scarring, as well as the risk of tubo-ovarian abscesses. In such cases, the patient experiences chronic pelvic pain, and risk of infertility. As part of the treatment regimen, hysterectomy with oophorectomy may be done.
Oophorectomy has a lot of benefits as it averts emergency situations, prevents cancers and deals with chronic pain; however, it is not an easy decision to make. Whether or not oophorectomy is the most suitable option depends only on the progression of the disease and the patient assessment by an expert like Best Gynecologist in Lahore.