5 Essential Parts of Computer In 2022

Do you know what makes up that computer you have been using? It is always good to have such knowledge even if you are not a computer enthusiast. If you are interested in learning about computers, on the other hand, you should know about the parts of a computer.  

A computer has many parts and components, but the most significant parts are the motherboard, the Central Processing Unit (CPU), the Random Access Memory (RAM), SSD or Hard Drive, and graphics card. This article expounds more on the mentioned parts in detail.  


The mainboard of a computer is directly screwed into a computer case with all essential cards and everything else plugging directly into it. The motherboard connects to the RAM, CPU, computer monitor power cord, other power supply inlets, and drives. It also integrates all components for them to communicate and operate together. A standard motherboard should provide a comprehensive connectivity option with as few bottlenecks as possible. That allows all parts to work efficiently and fulfill their maximum potential according to their design. Motherboards come in different dimensions. 

Central Processing Unit (CPU) 

The central processing unit is also referred to as the computer’s brain because it processes information on a computational level. The CPU receives information from RAM and processes tasks. It is a resourceful part of a computer since it processes calculations and data and controls most other computer components. The CPUs are usually located in a dedicated socket on a motherboard. The sockets are generally specific to particular CPU generations and their manufacturers. A cooling unit on the computer cools the CPU. The default cooling systems of a CPU typically include a fan and a heatsink. However, other cooling solutions are also available. Some of them are; 

  • Corsair H115i 
  • Noctua NH-D15 
  • Cooler Master Hyper 212 
  • EVGA CLC CL24 
  • Corsair Hydro Series H60 
  • DEEPCOOL Assassin III 

You should always ensure that your computer has an effective cooling system because it prevents your personal computer from getting overheated. An excellent cooling system increases the airflow and dissipates heat. A cooling system is a critical PC build component and is usually very affordable. From air coolers to liquid cooling, you can get a CPU cooler compatible with your CPU socket and your PC case.  

Random Access Memory (RAM) 

Random Access Memory is a device for data storage providing fast read and write access. It is also volatile, meaning that it loses all its stored data when power is lost. The random-access memory always keeps data ready for the processing of the CPU. RAM’s speed largely contributes to the overall computer’s speed. The RAM directly plugs into a long slot with contacts on either side. Like a processor, it has clock speed. RAM stores location, also known as any memory address, and can be accessed directly. 

The way RAM works is like the concept of a set of boxes where every box holds a 0 or a 1. Every box possesses a unique address found through the counting across columns and down rows. An array is a set of RAM boxes. Every box is called a cell. To locate a specific cell, the RAM controller sends the address of the column and rows down a thin electrical line that is etched into the chip. In a RAM array, each column and row possess its line of the address.  

Any read data flow back on a different data line. RAM is usually physically small and is stored in microchips. There are two types of RAMS: the Static Random Access Memory and the Dynamic Random Access Memory.  

Storage Device-Hard Drive or SSD

Your computer retains data on your PC in a storage device. A hard disk drive or HDD has always stored data, but with the advancement of technology, the Solid-State Storage devices or the SSD are taking over. At the front of your computer case are HDDs and SSDs connected to the motherboard through SATA cables. Drives need a cable for power and one for data. The older disk drives mostly use PATA. More comprehensive ribbon cables with an IDE connector are used for data. The HDD is the primary non-volatile computer storage.  

Even if you turn the system off, the information will not disappear. A hard drive is a metal platter containing a magnetic coating that stores data. On the other hand, an SSD performs similar essential functions to a hard drive. However, with an SSD, data is stored instead on interconnected flash memory chips, which retain data even with no power.  

Graphics Card 

Graphic cards process data from the motherboard, sending the appropriate information to the monitor for display. It can also display information using a DisplayPort, HDMI, DVI, or VGA connector. It is also known as a display card or a video card and takes and takes all the burden of video processing from the main CPU. That gives a significant performance boost to a computer. A graphics card plugs into a Peripheral Component Interconnect express motherboard slot.  

Final Thoughts 

All the parts expounded above play a significant role in a computer. The parts work harmoniously to ensure that the operations you run on your computer are well computed and outputted well. With that basic knowledge, you will find it more enjoyable and easier to use your PC since you understand what goes on in it.  

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